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Bone Grafting Overview

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bone grafting

Bone grafting is a procedure carried out surgically in order to repair highly complicated bone fractures by replacing the missing bone. With an amazing ability of self-regeneration, the human bone, with the help of grafting or transplantation, aids the graft material to remodel itself into your already functioning bone. There are mainly four situations where this procedure is carried out:

  1. Fractured bones: Grafting in this case helps to treat the fresh fracture or to treat the old fracture that failed to recover the first time.
  2. Implanted Device: It helps in the growth of bone tissues around the surgically implanted device such as screws and plates implants or artificial knee or hip joints.
  3. Regenerating bone: To replace the part of missing bone which was lost during the infection, trauma or any disease. This process can be carried out by implanting small amount of bone cavity or a large portion of bone.
  4. Fusion of bones: In this case, grafting helps in the fusion of two bones and heals them around the diseased joints. The fusion is done mostly in case of spine related problems.

The bone graft material typically used comes from the patient’s body. However, it may also be taken from a donor or be completely artificially made. The type of graft to be used also depends on the type of injury repaired. These grafts provide a framework in place of missing bone, where the healthy cells of your body can enter and rebuild the bone structure. The most commonly used bone grafts are as follows:-

Allograft: This type of bone material is usually taken from a donor who is deceased. The graft in this case has to pass the screening test. At tissue banks, this graft is disinfected and the donor’s body is checked for the any sign of infection. The benefit of using an allograft is that it is available all the time.

Autograft: This type of bone material is taken from the patient’s own body and grafted at the required site. The main advantage of autograft is that the graft comprises of the patient’s own cells and is completely immune and can avoid any kind of infection. However, the problem faced in this procedure is that a second site of surgery and substantial bone material is required which may not be available. The bone graft in this case is usually taken from patient’s hips, leg or ribs.

Synthetic graft: Synthetic grafts are the ones that are artificially created usually from the materials like Bioglass, calcium phosphate and calcium sulphate. These materials in order to be made biologically active are mixed with bone marrow. At times, certain growth factors may also be induced into them.

The grafting process also helps in removal of scar tissues as well as dead tissues from the graft site that may cause a hindrance in the healing process. The result will be a fully integrated new bone. The principle behind the biological mechanisms that are involved in grafting covers three areas of osteoconduction, osteoinduction and osteogenesis.

With every surgical procedure, there are certain risks involved. The risk may vary in each situation depending upon the site of surgery. However, infection, reaction to certain substances, excessive bleeding and anesthesia are some common risks involved. Apart from above mentioned risks, bone grafting is also prone to some other risk factors such as:

  • Nerve injury
  • Rejected bone graft
  • Inflammation
  • Stiffness
  • Severe pain

At Jehangir Hospital, we believe in early treatment for timely prevention of your problems. With excellent diagnostic facilities and equally well trained and skilled staff, our orthopedic departments pune makes sure of your wellness.

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